Closing the Nutrient Loop
“I cannot imagine more satisfying work than to operate between farming, cultural history, ecological history, prehistoric ecological history”
- Thomas Woltz
The Orongo Station is a 3,000 acre coastal farm located on the north Island of New Zealand. The farm had existed for over a century, before new owners took it over in 2001. At this time, because of overgrazing and deforestation, large areas of the farm were suffering from soil erosion and the quality of the grazing land was poor. Furthermore, a large wetland had been drained, destroying the habitat for many birds, insects and other wildlife. In short, the new owners were confronting an ecological disaster.
通过景观建筑师公司Nelson Byrd Woltz的引领流程来实现农场的恢复。在设计的核心中，希望将三层融合在土地内 - 农场景观，文化景观和土地的生态恢复。
The result: the farm is financially lucrative and resilient, the local Maori have greater access to the land and one of their ancient burial grounds has been expanded. Most remarkably, almost a fifth of the land has been ‘retired’ for wildlife zones, including the creation of an ecological niche for one of New Zealand’s rarest reptiles, the tuatara lizard.
同时土壤和野生动物被德stroyed, the global population is expanding and demand for food is increasing. It has been estimated that to feed the 3 billion expected extra people in 2050, will require an area about印度大小的两倍。为避免扩展到处女荒野并保护宝贵的碳汇和珍贵的野生动物栖息地，我们必须看看治疗现有农田的方法。
阐明了这一点three important layers of - farm, culture and ecology- whole system thinking was applied to bring all the complexities of the site into an integrated and coherent whole.
The development of the future farm’s detailed masterplan was informed by research into every aspect of the land, culture and farm activities, such as water tables, flood cycles, native plants, harvesting methods, cultural history and the habits of migratory birds. All of these factors informed the final layout of the farm.
To give some examples of the factors that influenced the design:
One migratory bird species needed a minimum of 1.6 hectares so the wetland plan included islands of this size.
Invasive species like stoats, weasels and rats had gotten out of hand, eating the eggs of burrowing birds and threatening the ecological balance. One mechanism to address this was to include steeper foraging slopes providing certain species with a safer lookout.
If the land is a canvas, then its undercoat is the 600,000 trees which were planted as the foundation for the farm’s journey of restoration. The natural vegetation of the region is temperate rainforest, but as the farm operation developed most of the trees were cut down. To facilitate the scale of afforestation, the original plan encouraged incentivizing local Maori people to collect seeds from local forests, which would then be propagated in a nursery and sold back to the farm. Now that the restoration of the farm has been completed, the Maori's access to the land has been expanded for harvesting, fishing and other traditional activities.
Before 1300, there were no significant mammal populations in New Zealand. This allowed indigenous birds and reptile life to thrive. The arrival of humans, first the Maori and later the Europeans, led to invasive species and habitat destruction, meaning many species became extinct, particularly ground-dwelling creatures such as the moa which had not evolved to defend against the influx of predatory stoats, weasels and rats.
遭受的一只遭受的动物是Tuatara蜥蜴（Sphenodon Punctatus），一个古老的爬行动物超过2亿多年。Tuatara的自然栖息地现在被限制在32个外群岛，在新西兰大陆发现野生种群。促成了朴纳拉的衰落的两个关键威胁是波利尼西亚大鼠的掠夺（rattus exulans) which feeds on reptile’s eggs as well as a very special relationship that tuatara have with certain species of sea-birds.
大蜥蜴茁壮成长,他们依靠共生with certain sea-bird species – two types of petrel and one type of shearwater, none of which had been seen on the shore for 100 years. The tuatara co-exist with these birds as they can re-use the bird’s burrows for their own nests, as well as acquire food in the form of an occasional egg, and by eating the insects that feed on the bird’s guano.
To provide a suitable habitat for the tuatara, a corner of the farm was fenced off that contained 80,000 trees and a steep cliff edge. To encourage the sea-birds to return, a solar-powered speaker was set up on the cliff, that each night broadcast the sounds of sea-birds, so that a colony was soon established. After a number of years of forest growth and at least three nesting cycles, the New Zealand Wildlife Authority and local Maori conservation group, decided that the enclosure was a suitable habitat to maximise the chance of successful breeding and in 2012 sixty-five tuatara adults were introduced into the enclosure. Shortly after the first tuatara eggs were successfully hatched.
将图坦拉释放到Orongo Station Land上的决定是对成功转变为该地区最富有，最富有的生物多样性生态人的成功转型的肯定。为了恢复由工业农业摧毁的世界各地的广阔土地，更多的农民和土地所有者需要遵循Orongo在食品，文化和生态学中提供丰富的榜样。
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